Magnetic flux converter F in nWb per meter tape flux track width to level in dB conversion of tape flux sensitivity calculate magnetic audio tape operating levels SAT - sengpielaudio
 
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Magnetic TapeAudio Tape
 
Conversion: Magnetic flux Φ in nWb ●
(per meter track width) to
flux level in dB
 
Tape Operating Levels (dB) - Tape Alignment Levels (dB)
 
Nanoweber per meter (nWb/m) = picoweber per millimeter (pWb/mm)
 
Magnetic flux - most often denoted as Φm. The SI unit of magnetic flux
(magnetic field) is the weber (Wb) in derived units: volt-seconds.
 
Enter any two values - the third will be calculated.

For magnetic tapes: Magnetic flux Φ in nWb/m = pWb/mm (tape flux)
Fluxivity is the amount of magnetic field that can be stored on a tape.
 
 Standard reference flux Φ   nWb/m 
 Recorded magnetic flux Φ   nWb/m 
Magnetic flux level LΦ   dB
   
The "magnetic flux density" B is the magnetic flux Φ divided by a surface (area) A:
B = Φ / A
The magnetic flux density B (magnetic induction) has the unit "weber/m2 (divided by "square meter").
The magnetic flux Φ is not equal to the magnetic flux density B, because the magnetic flux is not
divided by meter squared (m2)!
We use Wb/m for the track width of the magnetic tape, that is a length measure - and no area.
For magnetic tape we do not use the "magnetic flux density", as you often can find.

 
The magnetic flux density B in Tesla (T) is not the magnetic flux Φ in Weber (Wb)
 

   Magnetic   
flux
Φ
   Flux level   
LΦ
520 nWb/m +8.98 dB
370 nWb/m +6.02 dB
320 nWb/m +4.76 dB
250 nWb/m +2.62 dB
220 nWb/m +1.51 dB
200 nWb/m +0.68 dB
185 nWb/m 0 dB   
150 nWb/m −1.82 dB
        
   Magnetic   
flux
Φ
   Flux level   
LΦ
520 nWb/m +6.36 dB
370 nWb/m +3.41 dB
320 nWb/m +2.14 dB
250 nWb/m 0 dB   
220 nWb/m −1.11 dB
200 nWb/m −1.94 dB
185 nWb/m −2.62 dB
150 nWb/m −4.44 dB

Tape Operating Levels
 
 
Magnetic flux level LΦ = 20 × log (Φ/Φ0) in dB.
 
 
Used values as standard reference flux Φ0:
150, 185, 200, 220, 250, 320, 370, or 520 nWb/m.

Maximum Output Level of magnetic recording tapes

Maximum Output Level (MOL) performance of magnetic recording tapes at
15 ips. O = Theoretical peak flux values when aligning VU meter or PPM.
The dashed line (1955) represents the performance of the old US tape if
flux values were measured in accordance with DIN.
The Maximum Output Level (MOL) is the flux level at which third-harmonic
distortion reaches 3% of the fundamental's level measured at 1 kHz
(or 5% at 315 Hz for cassettes). There are a number of accepted magnetic
reference levels worldwide.

NAB − IEC studio tape replay equalization for 38.1 cm/s = 15 inches per second (ips)
Ampex Master Equalization (AME)
Joseph Dorner: From 15 MilliMaxwell to 1200 NanoWebers
J. G. McKnight: Tape Flux Measurement Theory and Verification
J. G. McKnight: Tape Flux Measurement revisited
Choosing and Using MRL Calibration Tapes for Audio Tape Recorder Standardization
Otto Schmidbauer: Determining the Magnetization of Magnetic Tape
Quantegy Recording Solutions − Audio Recorder Setup

"Maxwell" − the old unit for magnetic flux:
Maximum Output Level of magnetic recording tapes
 
tesla (T) − metric system − Unit of magnetic flux density.
Unit is named after Nikola Tesla.
Gauss (G) − cgs − Unit of magnetic flux density, that is equal to 0.0001 Tesla.
Unit is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss.
weber/square meter − Unit of magnetic flux density. 1 Wb/m2 = 1 T = 104 Gauss.
weber/square centimeter − Unit of magnetic flux density. 1 Wb/cm2 = 10000 T.
maxwell/square meter − Unit of magnetic flux density. 1 Mx/m2.
maxwell/square centimeter − Unit of magnetic flux density. 1 Mx/cm2.
1 Wb = 108 Mx. and 1 Mx = 10−8 Wb.
 
Tape flux: 18.5 mM/mm = 185 nWb/m and 25 mMx/mm = 250 nWb/m
 
1 Picoweber per millimeter was 0.1 millimaxwell per millimeter
 
Maximum Output Level of magnetic recording tapes

Weber is the practical unit of magnetic flux. It is the amount of magnetic flux which, when
linked at a uniform rate with a single-turn electric circuit during an interval of 1 second,
will induce in this circuit an electromotive force of 1 volt. Wb = V·s = m2kg/s2A.
 
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