|There are 4, 6, 8 ohm speakers with this input impedance,
but no 4, 6, 8 ohm amplifiers with this output impedance.
|It is customary for the connection of audio devices to talk of the source and
load impedance or output and input impedance. If you hear something of
an "8 ohm amplifier", then we think usually of 8 ohm speakers.
These are amateurs asking for help in the forums, where you are told
You can only find power amplifiers with an actual
output impedance of less than 0.1 ohm. Zout < 0.1 Ω.
Please read this here:
"8 Ohm Output" and "150 Ohm Input" − What is that?
There are no 4 ohm or 8 ohm speaker amplifiers
with this high output impedance.
Those who do not believe that should quickly click away and stay blind. Often dummies don't want to know what really goes on.
There is really no matching in audio.
It's a myth when you are told that you need
matching of the amplifier and the loudspeaker.
Wrong is: Zout = Zin.
Audio really needs bridging: source Zout < load Zin.
|When "8 ohms" is written on the output of an amplifier, we think that
there must be present an output impedance of 8 ohms.
But we are told here, that these "unfortunately" 8 ohms means only that loudspeakers with this ohms value are desired by the amplifier manufacturer.
However, it is customary for the connection of audio devices to talk of the output and input impedances which are really there − here at the connection of an amplifier and the loudspeaker.
There are never 8 ohms at the output of an amplifier.
|In the audio technology even for speaker amplifiers (power amplifiers), we use only
voltage bridging. The frequent call for "real" matching Zsource = Zload is really wrong.
There is no speaker impedance matching. We got speaker impedance bridging.
|The seldom specified source resistance Zsource is hided in the damping factor DF.
A damping factor of at least DF = 100 is entirely in order. Loudspeaker and amplifier connections have a source impedance (amplifier) of Zoutput less than 0.04 ohms, with a load impedance (loudspeaker) of Zinput greater than 4 ohms.
Impedance matching (power matching) Z1 = Z2 on the other hand, is only used in the telecommunications and the RF technology applied to antennas.
There are really no 4 ohm amplifiers and
there are no 8 ohm amplifiers for the
4 ohm or 8 ohm loudspeakers.
Who does not believe that, should quickly
click away and remain blind.
In audio technology, even with power amplifiers and speakers we're all use voltage
bridging Zout << Zin.
The frequent call for "real" impedance matching Zout = Zin is wrong.
There is no impedance matching Zout = Zin between power amplifier and loudspeakers.
|No matching of speaker impedance (load) to amplifier - No loudspeaker load impedance
matching - Matching is a myth. We got speaker impedance bridging Zsource < Zload. (Zout < Zin)
That is the case even with valve or tube amplifiers.
In sound engineering there is no Power matching or Impedance matching.
In audio we use only Voltage bridging or high Impedance bridging.
|The output impedance of the amplifier is always a tenth or a hundredth of the
value of the loudspeaker impedance. The value of the output impedance of
the amplifier Zsource is always hidden in the damping factor DF and can
easily be calculated:
Zload is the impedance of the loudspeaker.
The cable resistance (impedance) is a part of the output impedance of the
amplifier. Because of the high voltage of the source, cable screening (shielding)
is not necessary in this case.
The typical continuous query in the forums: "Can I use 4 ohm speakers to a
6 ohms amplifier?" (See reply under "Notice".)
These issues show that there must be storytellers underway. How can we get
rid of the nonsense of 2 to 16 ohms amplifiers?
The output impedance of an amplifier Zout is always smaller than 0.5 ohm.
Zout << Zin.
Amateurs are happy to speak of an 8 ohm amplifier, if they think not correctly
that the amplifier output should be connected to "8 ohm speakers".
Dealers use exactly these unclear expressions. In reality, the speaker
impedance curve of a loudspeaker is never a straight line; see:
Typical loudspeaker impedance curves vs. frequency
Impedances behave like an unloaded voltage divider. Zload = Z1and Zsource = Z2.
|Signal loss in dB: 20 log [Z1 / (Z1 + Z2)]
Damping factor: DF = Z1 / Z2
Source impedance in ohms: Z2 = Z1 / DF
Please enter two values, the third value will be calculated.
Z1 = load impedance and Z2 = source impedance.
|Calculation of the damping of impedance bridging or
power matching an interface connecting Zout and Zin
Calculations: voltage divider (potentiometer) -
damping pad - loaded and open circuit (unloaded)
Please tell your friends: There are really no 4 or 8 ohms amplifiers to match the speakers.
The damping factor is usually given as numerical value, but also as decibels.
|Simply enter the value to the left or the right side.
The calculator works in both directions of the ↔ sign.
Calculation of the damping factor.
|How do I calculate the damping factor DF for example, at 1 kHz, if neither the impedance of
the source Z2 nor the impedance of the load Z1 is known?
Allow the source to send out of a 1 kHz sine tone and measure the resulting voltageV0 at the
output without any load. Then measure at this point the voltage VL, when the load is applied.
The damping factor is:
The impact of input impedance and output impedance
of studio gear for bridging in audio engineering:
|Measurement of input impedance and output impedance
Calculations: voltage divider or potentiometer − Loaded and open circuit (unloaded)
Bridging (voltage) or matching (power) − Interface connecting Zout and Zin impedance
Voltage bridging or impedance bridging − Zout < Zin
Cable length, cable capacitance, and treble loss (Attenuation, cutoff frequency)
|Fortunately, there are no amplifiers with an output impedance of
4-ohm or 8-ohm which have to fit to speakers with these values.
We have no power matching, we have voltage bridging, whereby the power amplifier often has an output impedance of only one hundredth of the speaker's input impedance.
At power amplifiers for musicians usually you can read at the output plugs: 4 ohms to 8 ohms − to tell the user that only a
4-ohm speaker or an 8-ohm speaker has to be used and does not give the "correct" output impedance value, which is around 0.1 ohms. This is often not known by users.
|There are no stupid questions - or perhaps:
Can I operate an 8 ohm speaker with a 4-ohm amplifier?
While there are speakers with a nominal input impedance of 8 ohm, there is no amplifier on the market with a nominal output impedance of 4 ohms. All speaker amplifiers have an output impedance of less than 0.1 ohm; see:
Citation: Modern audio amplifiers are active control devices, and the impedance matching of the amplifier to the loudspeaker is since 1965 no longer considered best practice. That means: Zout << Zin.
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